Category Archives: Uncategorized

Douglas Keith Candland

July, 2022

Douglas Keith Candland (photo by Kevin Candland 2021


Office: Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania, USA 17837                           

Home: 125 Stein Lane, Lewisburg, Pennsylvania 17837, USA 

(570) 577-1200 or, home, (570) 524 2355)


In April, 2021, Bucknell announced that Glen Tullman ’81 had made a financial gift that would establish an endowed chair, to be known as the Douglas K. Candland Chair, for the Dean of the College of Arts and Sciences. In addition, the gift endowed funds for the Civic Engagement Program and extraordinary funds for the academic advancement of students in the Animal Behavior Program.


Candland, D. K. Archeopsychology and the Modern Mind, 2011, 2014, 2017.  See www or e-book edition at Kindle or Nook.

Candland, D. K.  Feral Children and Clever Animals; Reflections on Human Nature. New York and Oxford:  Oxford University Press, 1993.  (Paperback edition, September, 1995.)

Candland, D. K., Fell, J. P., Keen, J. E., Leshner, A. I., Plutchik, R., and Tarpy,  R. M.  Emotion.   Monterey, California:  Brooks/Cole, 1977. Also see: Kindle or Nook

Candland, D. K. and Moyer, R. S.  Psychology:  The Experimental Approach, 2nd ed. New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1974.

Candland, D. K.  Psychology:  The Experimental Approach.  New York:  McGraw-Hill,   1968.

Candland, D. K. and Campbell, J. F.  Exploring Behavior, An Introduction to Psychology.  New York:  Basic Books, 1961.  (Paperback edition,  Crowell-Collier, 1963.)

Candland, D. K.  (edited) Emotion–Bodily Change.  Princeton:  Van Nostrand, 1963.

Documentary films and television:

Salk Institute for Biological Studies in La Jolla, California on October 11-12, 2019 entitled”Impact of Early Life Deprivation on Cognition: Implications for theFeral Children: Two Living Examples and a Little Neurology in Evolutionary Origins of the Human         Mind.”  Broadcast of October 10, 2019. See YouTube.

Australian Broadcasting Corporation. “Animal People” Broadcast of September 6, 2015.

NBC: Today Show, April 11, 2013.

Legend of the Pine Barrens, Discovery, 2012.

The Beast of Gevaudan (La Bete de Gevaudan), History Channel, March, 2009.

National Geographic: “Feral Children”. Filmed in Uganda, 2006, premier March 19, 2007. 

BBC (4) “The Boy who was Raised with Monkeys”. October 1999.

CBS “Evening news with Dan Rather.”

BBC (4) “The Rise  and Rise of Animals Rights,” two parts, (commentator on changes in 

public perception of animals), October, 2000.

BBC (1) Interview on feral children, October 2001

Clips from “The Boy…” used on Discovery, Believe it or Not. 

ARTE, French Television. Le Compagne Taxi-Brousse, January, 2005.

Russian State Television, “Science and Insight”, January, 2005. Реальность илифантастика?

Cross-generational Program

In 1971-1972, a group of undergraduates conceived the idea of a ‘commune’, at the time a term for groups with a common interest to live and work together, to encourage young persons (Bucknell undergraduates) and aged persons (from the community) to audit courses and to reside in college housing. Led by students Scott Kerr and Rick Peters, they prepared and application for two-years of modest startup funds from the Foundation for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education (FIPSE). With the considerable attention and advice of Professor Ernest Keen and the endorsement of myself, the program was funded, acquired a home in Leiser House on the Bucknell campus, and ran from 1973 until 1983. The faculty made it clear from the onset that the program would be totally student run, as was specified in the grant. FIPSE provided modest financial support for four years.

The students, especially Kerr and Peters, designed the events and supervised the home until their graduation. Without faculty assistance, the program became self-sufficient with a decade of students taking part. The students found grant support, sponsored a nationally publicized conference on aging, and, in time, as student and national culture change, saw the program, by 1983, lose its significance.

A book-length manuscript, a record of interviews of students and participants, prepared by J. Ernest Keen was deposited in the Bucknell University Archives.


Editor, Review of General Psychology, 2002-2014.

Editorial Board, Animal Sentience, 2015-

Associate Editor, Animal Learning and Behavior, 1976-1984.

Consulting Editor, Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1988-1994.

Consulting Editor, American Journal of Primatology, 1980-84.

Member, Advisory Board and Editorial Board, The Teaching of Psychology, 1972-84.

Bucknell University Press:  Co-editor with the late C. R. Carpenter, series of “The                             Primates,” 1974-Present.  Editor:  Series on Animal Behavior, 1978-Present.

Editorial work for Harper and Row, MacMillan, McGraw-Hill, Oxford, and Academic.

PCR:  Films and Video in Behavioral Science, 1976-1980; 1986-1990.

Research Fellowships

Postdoctoral Research Fellow, National Institute of Health, 1959-60, at Princeton University (with B.A. Campbell) and the University of Virginia (with F.W. Finger).

Postdoctoral Fellow, National Science Foundation, 1967-68, at Delta Regional Primate Research Center of Tulane University (with W.A. Mason).

Special Research Fellow, 1968-69, National Institute of Health, at the Pennsylvania State University (with C.R. Carpenter).

Visiting Professorships

Visiting Professor, University of Stirling, Stirling, Scotland, UK, 1972-73.

Visiting Professor, National Science Foundation, at the Applied Psychology Unit, National Research Council, Cambridge University, UK, 1977-78.

Fulbright Fellow, Indo-American Program, University of Mysore, India, 1983.

Visiting Scholar, University of California at Berkeley, 1996-1997.

Awards and Honors

Award for “Distinguished Teaching in Psychology for 1978. American Psychological Foundation.  (American Psychologist, 1979, 34, 82-83). Developed program and major in Environmental Science (with Michael LaGrega, chemical engineering), with funding from National Science Foundation at Bucknell University in 1980

Animal Behavior Society Award for “Distinguished Contributions in Teaching Animal Behavior.” (1999).

Bucknell: Christian Lindback Award for Distinguished Teaching (1971).

Bucknell: Class of 1956 Lectureship for Inspirational Teaching (1971).

Bucknell: Harriman Award for contribution to intellectual life (1979).

President’s Invited Address, American Psychological Association, Washington, 1986.  “Revolution and rebellion in the teaching of psychology.”

Arthur Staats Endowed Lectureship on Unifying Psychology, American Psychological Foundation, 2010. 

C. Alan Boneau Award for outstanding service to Division 1, American Psychological Association, 2015. (with Donald Dewsbury, University of Florida) (Bucknell ’61).

Educational Programs, Bucknell

Developed program and major in Animal Behavior at Bucknell University in 1968. Served as Program Director until 2002.

Developed program and major in Environmental Science (with Michael LaGrega, chemical engineering), with funding from National Science Foundation at Bucknell University in 1980.

Involvement in Species Conservation and Environmental Protection

Wildlife Preservation Trust International, 1985-2000.  Chair, Conservation Committee, 1991-1994. (Gerald Durrell trust).

Participant in conferences arranged by Mary Evelyn Tucker and John Grim  (Yale University) (Harvard University), 1998. (United Nations, New York City). (1998)

Chapters in Books

Candland, D. K.  Autobiography. In “Psychology’s Best Teachers”, Ed: William Buskitt, 2006.

Candland, D. K. & Bush, S. L.  Primates and Behavior.  In Gibbons, E., Durrant, B. and Demarest, J.  (Eds.), Conservation of Endangered Species in Captivity.  State University of New York Press, 1995, pp. 521-551.

Candland, D. K.  Towards a psychology of variance:  Ethnic minorities (Chapter 5) In J. McGovern (Ed.)  Handbook for Enhancing Undergraduate Education. Washington:  American Psychological Association, 1994.

Candland, D. K.  Tool use.  Vol. 2B, of Comparative Primate Biology.  J. Erwin, Ed. New York:  Liss, 1987, 85-103.

Candland, D. K. & Kyes, R. C.  The human primates’ theory of the primate mind.                Vol. 2, Primate Ontogeny, Cognition and Social Behavior.  Else, G. & Lee, P. (Eds.) Cambridge:  Cambridge Press, 1986, pp. 25-29.

Candland, D. K.  The teaching of psychology.  Chapter in Applied Specialties in Psychology.  E. Altmaier and M. Meyer (Eds.) New York:  Random House, 1985, pp. 175-203.

Candland, D. K.  Contributor to Honacki, J. H., Kinman, K. E., & Koeppl, J. W. (eds.)  Mammal species of the world:  a taxonomic and geographic reference. The Order Primates, pp. 216-243.  Lawrence, Kansas:  Allen Press, 1982.

Eberhart, J. A. and Candland, D. K.  A preliminary model of primate intergroup    encounters.  The biology of aggression.  In the Biology of Aggression.  Brain, P. F. and Benton, D. (Eds.) Rockland, Md.:  Sijthoff and Noordhoff, 1981, pp. 577-583.

Candland, D. K., French, J. A., and Johnson, C. N.  Object-play:  Test of categorized        model by the genesis of object-play in Macaca fuscata.  In Smith, E. O. (ed.), Play in Primates.  New York: Academic Press, 1978, 259-296.

Candland, D. K. and Leshner, A. I.  A model of agonistic behavior:  Endocrine and autonomic correlates.  In L. DiCara (Ed.), The Limbic and Autonomic Nervous Systems.  London:  Plenum, 1974, 137-163.

Candland, D. K.  The ontogeny of emotional behavior.  In Moltz, H. (Ed.), The     Development of Vertebrate Behavior.  New York:  Academic Press, 1971, 94-146.

Candland, D. K. and Nagy, Z. M.  The open field:  Some phylogenetic data.  In Annals     of the New York Academy of Sciences.  “Experimental approaches to the study of emotional behavior.”  1969, 159, 831-851.

Bachrach, A. J., Candland, D. K., and Gibson, Janice T.  Verbal behavior.  In Berg, A. and Bass, B. M., Conformity and Deviation.  New York:  Harper, 1961, 258-285.

Vernon, J. A., McGill, T. E., Gulick, W. L., and Candland, D. K.  Effects of sensory deprivation on some perceptual and motor skills.  In Solomon, R. (Ed.), Sensory Deprivation.  Cambridge:  Harvard Press, 1961, 41-57.

Prefaces; Introductions in Books

A Dictionary of Cultural and Critical Theory, second edition: Routledge. Subjects: feral children and the Review of General Psychology. In Payne, M. (Ed.)  Oxford: UK, Routledge. 2010

Preface to “The Incunabular Tarzan,” Dodds, G. (ed.) The Incunabular Tarzan Writings. With an Introduction by Brian Stableford ;  an essay  by Douglas Candland; collected and edited by Georges Dodds. Shelburne, Ontario, Canada : Battered Silicon Dispatch Box, 2003.

Foreword to “Handbook of Comparative Psychology.”  Greenberg, G. and Haraway, M. (Eds.).  Garland, xiii-xvi, 1998.

American Encyclopedia.  “Feral Children.”

Foreword to re-issue of Roger Shattuck “The Forbidden Experiment.”  New York and

Tokyo:  Kodansha, 1994.

O’Brien, D. and Candland, D. K.  Foreward to Brozek, J.  “Explorations in the History of Psychology in the United States.”  Lewisburg, PA:  Bucknell Press, 1983.

Candland, D. K.  Preface and afterword to “Classical Psychophysics and Scaling” by S.    A. Manning and E. H. Rosenstock.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1968.  Translations.  Psicofisica Clássica.  (Editora Pedagógica e Universitária Ltta.  Sao Paulo, 1974); Elaboración de escales de actitudes y psicofísica clásica.  (Editorial Trillas, México City, 1978).


Candland, D.K., The Animal Mind and Conservation of Species: Knowing what animals know. Special Section on Animal Behaviour, Current Science, UK, 10 Oct 2005, 89. Summer, 7, 1122-1127.

Smith, B. R. Piel, A.K., and Candland, D.K. Numerity of a Socially-housed Hamadyras  baboon (Papio hamadryas) and a Socially Housed Squirrel Monkey (Saimiri Sciureus).  Journal of   Comparative Psychology, 2003, 17, 217-225.

McHenry, T., Brady, W., Candland, D., E. Echeverria, J., Ferguson, J., Jensen, J.,Koontz, F., Jolly, A., Mars, V., Model, A., Pearl, M., Tuten, J., Trust International’s Conservation Perspective and Strategic Directors.  Dodo, 1999, 35, 116-123.

Candland, D.K.  Reflections on reading the first sentence.  Consciousness and  Cognition, 1995, 4, 248-250.  

Candland, D.K.  Comment on “The Nature of Emotion” by E.A. Salzen. nternational Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1991, 5, 89-90.

Candland, D.K.  Captivity as torture.  Humane Innovations and Alternatives, 1991, 5, 294-299. 

Candland, D. K. & Judge, P. G.  Visual (social perception) categories of Macaca

fuscata  and Papio hamadryas.  Primatology Today.  Amsterdam: Elsevier,

Ehara, A., Kimura, T., Takenaka, O. & Iwamoto, M. (eds.), 1991, 289-292. 

Candland, D. K.  Dated Behavior Films:  A Teaching Opportunity.  Perspectives on Film and Video.  Fall, 1988, 14-17.

Kyes, R. C. & Candland, D. K.  Baboon (Papio hamadryas) visual preferences for regions of the face.  Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1987, 101, 345-348.

Candland, D. K.  Unnatural selection.  Teaching of Psychology, 1987, 14, 151-155.

Martau, P. A., Caine, N. G. & Candland, D. K.  Nonhuman primate emotionality:  Reliability of the Emotions Profile Index, primate form, with Papio hamadryas, Macaca fuscata,  and Saimiri sciureus.  Primates, 1985, 26, 501-505.

Candland, D. K.  Selective pressure and the teaching of psychology; the fox and the hedgehog.  Teaching of Psychology, 1982, 8, 20-23.

Weinberg, S. & Candland, D. K.  “Stone-grooming” in Macaca fuscata.  American Journal of Primatology, 1981, 1, 465-468.

Candland, D. K.  Common Ground.  Monitor  of the American Psychological Association, January, 1981.

Candland, D. K.  The status of comparative psychology.  Comparative Psychology Newsletter, 1981, 1(4), 1-3.

Candland, D. K. & Hoer, J. B.  The logical status of dominance.  The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1981, 4, 436-437.

Candland, D. K.  Speaking words and doing deeds.  American Psychologist, 1980, 35,   191-198. (Lecture upon receipt of award for Distinguished Teaching, American Psychological Foundation.

Candland, D. K., Blumer, E. S. & Mumford, M. D.  Urine as a communicator in a new world primate,  Saimiri sciureus.  Animal Learning and Behavior, 1980, 8, 468-480.

Candland, D. K.  Cognition and consciousness in nonhuman species.  How the animals lost their minds.  The Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1978, 4, 555-629.

Candland, D. K., Dresdale, L., Leshner, A., Cahill, B., Eberhart, J., & O’Connor, K.  Behavior of unacquainted Saimiri  troops upon meeting:  A suggestive case study.  Primates, 1978, 19, 782-795.

Candland, D. K. & Kerr, S.  The Cross-Generational project at  Bucknell University: Older students in an educational setting.  National Council for the Social Studies, 1977, 494-497.

Candland, D. K., Leshner, A. I., Dresdale, L., & O’Connor, K.  Behavioral and   hormonal correlates of groups of Saimiri  meeting and fusing.  (Chivers, D., and  Herbert, J., eds.).  Recent Advances in Primatology, London:  Academic, 1976, 599-600.

Candland, D. K., Weldon, P. J., O’Connor, K., & Lorinc, G.  Creative manipulation of the environment by Macaca fuscata, (Chivers, D. and Herbert, J., eds.).  Recent Advances in Primatology, London:  Academic, 1976, 965-966.

Monogue, K., Leshner, A. I., & Candland, D. K.  Dominance status and adrenocortical reactivity to stress in squirrel monkeys.  Primates, 1975, 16, 457-463.

Candland, D. K. & Leshner, A. I.  Socialization and adrenal functioning in the squirrel monkey.  Contemporary Primatology (Kondo, S., Kawai, M., and Ehara, A., eds.).  Basle:  Karger, 1975, pp. 238-244.

Candland, D. K., Dresdale, L., Leiphart, J., Bryan, D., Johnson, C., & Nazar, B.  Social structure of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus,  Iquitos):  Relationships among behavior, heartrate, and physical distance.  Folia Primatologica, 1973, 20, 211-240.

Candland, D. K., Tyrrell, D. S., Wagner, D. S., & Wagner, N. M.  Social preference of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).  Folia Primatologica, 1973, 19, 437-449.

Leshner, A. I. & Candland, D. K.  The hormonal basis of aggression.  New Scientist, 1973, 57, 18 Jan (126).

Candland, D. K., Geiger, W. C., & Bell, J.  A field cage for old world primates   designed to encourage natural behavior.  Primates, 1972, 13, 315-322.

Candland, D. K.  Changes in heartrate during social organization of the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus).  In proceedings of the Third International Primatological Congress.   Kummer, H. (ed.).  Basle:  Springer/Verlag, 1971, 172-179.

Leshner, A. I. & Candland, D. K.  Endocrine effects of grouping and dominance rank in squirrel monkeys.  Physiology and Behavior, 1972, 8, 441-445.

Candland, D. K., Dresdale, L., Leiphart, J., & Johnson, C.  Video-tape as a replacement for the human observer in studies of nonhuman primate behavior.  Behavioral Research and Instrumentation, 1972, 4, 24-26.

Candland, D. K., Bryan, D. C., Kopf, K., Nazar, B. L., & Sendor, M.  Squirrel monkey heartrate change during formation of status orders parallels the function found in chickens.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1970,70, 417-423.

Candland, D. K.  Discriminability of the facial regions used by the domestic chicken in maintaining the social dominance order.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 69, 281-285.

Candland, D. K., Taylor, D. B., Solow, S. P., Leiphart, J. M., & Dresdale, L.  Heart rate and aggression in the domestic chicken (White Leghorn).  Journal of           Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1969, 67, 70-76.

Candland, D. K. & Mason, W. A.  Infant monkey heartrate:  Habituation and effects of social substitutes.  Developmental Psychobiology, 1968, 1, 254-256.

Candland, D. K., Matthews, T. J., & Taylor, D. B.  Factors affecting the reliability of dominance orders in the domestic chicken (White Leghorn).  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1968, 66, 168-174.

Candland, D. K. & Conklyn, D. H.  Social dominance and learning in the domestic chicken.  Psychonomic Science, 1968, 11, 247-248.

Candland, D. K.  Heartrate and dominance in chicken and squirrel monkey.  American Zoologist, 1968, 8, 739-740 (a).

Candland, D. K., Pack, K. D., & Matthews, T. J.  Comparison of heartrate and    defecation frequency as measures of rodent emotionality.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1967, 64, 146-150.

Candland, D. K. & Manning, S.A.  Elementary learning patterns in mental retardates.  The Training School Bulletin, 1966, 63, 57-99.

Candland, D. K. & Milne, D. W.  Species differences in approach behaviour as a function of developmental environment.  Animal Behaviour, 1966, 14, 539-545.

Candland, D. K. & Matthews, T. J.  Prediction of dominance rank from heart rate of the domestic fowl.  American Zoologist, 1966, 6, 584 (a).

Candland, D. K. & Taylor, Derek B.  The aggression ratio:  A measure of aggressiveness in domestic fowl.  American Zoologist, 1966, 6, 584 (a).

Candland, D. K., Culbertson, J. L., & Moyer, R. S.  Parameters affecting adaptation to   and retention of open-field elimination in the rat.  Animal Behaviour, 1965, 12, 46-52.

Candland, D. K., Nagy, Z. M., & Conklyn, D. H.  Emotional behavior in the domestic chicken (White Leghorn) as a function of age and developmental environment.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962, 56, 1069-1073.

Candland, D. K., Horowitz, S. H., & Culbertson, J. L.  Acquisition and retention of acquired avoidance with gentling as reinforcement.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962, 55, 1062-1064.

Candland, D. K. & Campbell, B. A.  Development of fear in the rat as measured by behavior in the open-field.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1962, 55, 593-596.  Reprinted in Endler, N. S., et al.  Contemporary Issues in Developmental Psychology.  New York:  Holt, 1968.

Candland, D. K. & Conklyn, D. H.  Use of the oddity problem in teaching mentally retarded deaf-mutes to read:  A pilot study.  The Training School Bulletin, 1962,         59, 38-41.  Reprinted in Smith, W. I. and Moore, J. W.  Learning and Conditioning.  New York:  McGraw-Hill, 1966.  Reprinted in Fusfeld, I. S.  A Handbook of Readings in Education of the Deaf and Postschool Implications. Springfield, Ill.:  Thomas, 1967.

Candland, D. K. & Campbell, B. A.  Effects of prior shock on the emotionality of young rats in an open field.  Canadian Journal of Psychology, 1961, 15, 1-5.

Candland, D. K., Faulds, B. D., Thomas, D. B., & Candland, M. H.  The reinforcing alue of gentling.  Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 1960, 53, 55-58.

Vernon, J. A., McGill, T. E., Gulick, W. L., & Candland, D. K.  Effect of sensory deprivation on some perceptual and motor skills.  Perceptual and Motor Skills, 1959, 9, 91-97.

Bitterman, M. E., Wodinsky, J., & Candland, D. K.  Some comparative psychology.  American Journal of Psychology, 1958, 71, 94-110.

Invited Book Reviews:

Why Chimpanzees can’t learn language and only humans can. by Herbert S. Terrace. Review in Life of the Mind. October, 2019.

Ghosts of Gombe, the true story of love and death in an African wilderness. by Dale Peterson.  University of California Press, 2018.  In Life of the Mind. March 14, 2019.

Behave. the biology of humans at our best and our worst.  by Robert M. Sapolsky.  Life of the Mind. July 12, 2018

Lacing Old Wine with New. A review of 125 years of the American Psychological Association. Pickren and Rutherford, Eds. PsyCeitiques.  December 28, 2017.

62, vol 51, article  28. (final article of final issue.)

A Vade Mecum for Success in the Academy. A review of Sternberg, R. J. Starting your Career

in academic psychology.  Washington, DC: American Psychological Association, 2017. Review of March 20, 2017, PsyCritiques. v.61, n 12, art 4.            

Scientists Making a Difference, One hundred eminent behavioral and brain scientists talk about their most important contributions.  Reviewed in Life of the Mind, January 18, 2017.

Psychology Analyzed. Review of Gaj, Nicoló.  Unity and Fragmentation in Psychology, the philosophical and methodological roots of the discipline.  Routledge: New York and Oxford: 2016.  PsyCritiques. Vol 61(37), 2016, September 12.

‘Three Generations of Imbeciles is Enough’ Review of Maladrida, C. A Special Hell, Institutional Life in Alberta’s Eugenic Years. PsyCritiques, December 28, 2015, Vol. 60, No. 52, Article 2

Human Existence Explained. Review of E. O. Wilson: The Meaning of human existence.

PsychCritiques, 2015, vol 60, no 16, article 2.

Inspecting the Mind’s Mental Machinery through the Psychologists’ Looking-glass. Review of Cela-Conde, C. J., Lombardo, R. G., Avise, J. C. Ayala, F.J. (Eds.) The Human Mental Machinery, vol VII. Arthur M. Sackler Colloquia. Washington DC: National Academy of Sciences, 2014. PsychCritiques,

The Curse and Cure of Human Exceptionalism in a Brave New Psychological World. Review of Animal Studies. an introduction. Waldau, P. New York: Oxford, 2013. PsychCritiques. Oct 12, 2013, vol. 58, issue 43.

Understanding Other Animals: A Fifth Way? Review of “The Bonobo and the Atheist. “De Waal, F. New York: Norton, 2013.  PsycCritiques, 2013, vol 58, no 34, August 21.

Games Primates Play. Maestripieri, D.  New York: Basic, 2012. Life of the Mind. March, 2013.

Can Philosophers read psychologists’ minds?  Review of Do Apes read minds? By Kristin Andrews. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2012. PsyCritiques, May 1, 2013: 58, 18.

Moral Origins, the evolution of virtue, altruism, and shame. Boesch, C. New York: Basic, 2012.: Life of the Mind, March 2013.

Why and How Encyclopedias Matter. Review of the Encyclopedia of the History of Psychological Theories. Reiber, R. W, (Ed.)  New York Springer, 2 vols. 2012.


Two scientists walk into a bar . Review of “Animal Engineering “by M. Denny and A. McFadan. PsychCRITIQUES, 2011, 56. Oct 26.

Consciousness, lost, found —and re-examined. Review of Soul Dust by Nicholas Humphrey, PsyCRITIQUES, 2011, 56.

On Organizing knowledge: from Pliny to PsychologyThe Corsini Encyclopedia of Psychology, fourth edition. (4 vols) PsychCRITIQUES,  55, no. 28, July 15, 2010

The Routledge Companion to Philosophy of Psychology, Edited by John Symons and Paco Calvo. PsychCRITIQUES, 2010, 55, January 27.

The Three Cultures, natural sciences, social sciences, and the humanities in the 21st century.

by Jerome Kagan. PsycCRITIQUES, 54 (39), September 30, 2009.

Are we free? Psychology and free will edited by J. Baer, J. C. Kaufman, and R. F. Baumeister PsycCRITIQUES—Contemporary Psychology: APA Review of Book, 53 (33).

John Buridan’s Ass and the Problem of Rationality. Rational Animals? (S. Hurley and M. 

Nudds, Eds). PsyCRITIQUES. February 28, 2007.

Cognitive Development in Chimpanzees. (Matsuzaza, T Tomonaga, M, and M. Tanaka Eds.)

International Journal of Primatology, 2007, 

Animal Bodies, Human Minds. (Hillix and Rumbaugh). American Journal of Primatology,

2006, 68, 513-516.

Perspectives on Imitation: From Neuroscience to Social Science. Vol. 1 and 2: Imitation, Human Development, and Culture. (Hurley and Chater  (Eds.). PsycCRITIQUES, 50, (49), 2005.

Birth of the Mind. (G. Marcus). Contemporary Psychology, 2004 (PsyCRITIQUES , November, 2004).

Pretending and Imagination in Animals and Children. (Mitchell, R. W. Ed.). Ethology, 2003.

Animal Models of Human Psychology, Critique of Science, Ethics, and Policy.

(K. J. Shapiro) with A. K. Piel, Contemporary Psychology, 2001, 46, 213-215.

Anthropomorphism, Anecdotes, and Animals.  (R. W. Mitchell, N. S. Thompson &

L. Miles, eds.)  Contemporary Psychology, 1998, 43, 357-358.

The New Anthropomorphism.  (J.S. Kennedy, ed.)  Contemporary Psychology,

1993, 38, 1039-1040.

Cognitive Ethology, essays in honor of Donald Griffin.  (Carolyn Ristau, ed.) Contemporary Psychology, 1991, 36, 941-943.

Machiavellian Intelligence:  Social expertise and the evolution of intellect in monkeys, apes and humans.  (C. R. Byrne & A. Whiten, eds.)  Contemporary Psychology, 1990, 35, 266-267).

Primate Societies.  (B. B. Smuts, D. L. Cheney, R. M. Seyfarth, R. W. Wrangham & T. T. Struhsaker) . Contemporary Psychology, 1988, 33, 578-580.

Aggression; the myth of the beast within.  (J. Klama (pseudo)) International Journal of Comparative Psychology, 1988, 1, 206-209.

Exploration in Animals and Humans.  (A. J. Archer & L. Birke). Contemporary Psychology, 1984, 29, 229-230.

How Animals Communicate.  (T. A. Sebeok).  Contemporary Psychology, 1979, 24,         865-867.

Motivation:  Theories and Principles.  (R. C. Beck)  Contemporary Psychology, 1978,      23, 383-384.

The rat:  A study in behavior.  (S. A. Barnett)  Contemporary Psychology, 1979, 24, 791.

The Experimental Analysis of Behavior:  A Biological Perspective.  (C. E. Fatino and C. A. Logan)  The Quarterly Review of Biology, 1980, 55, 205-206.

A Practical Guide to Behavioral Research.  (R. Somer and B. Somer).  Contemporary Psychology, 1981, 26, 465.


B.A., Pomona College, 1956 with Honors.  (1955-56; undergraduate research grant, Social Science Research Council.) Ph.D., Princeton University, 1959. (1958-59, Predoctoral Research Fellow, National Institute of Mental Health.)Postdoctoral, 1959-1960, National Institute of Mental Health, University of Virginia.

Professional  Experience:

Assistant Professor of Psychology, Bucknell University, 1960-64.

Associate Professor of Psychology, Bucknell University, 1964-67.

Professor of Psychology, Bucknell University, 1967-2002.

Presidential Professor, 1973-1980.

Professor of Psychology and Animal Behavior, Bucknell University, 1985-2002.

Homer P. Rainey Professor of Psychology, 1988-2002

Director, Program in Animal Behavior, Bucknell University, 1967-2002.

Homer P. Rainey Professor of Psychology and Animal Behavior, emeritus, 2002-.

Educational  Administrative  Experience

Chair, Program in Animal Behavior, Bucknell University, 1969-2002.

Chairman, Coordinating Committee on the Social Sciences, 1974-1977.

Chairman, Department of Psychology, Bucknell University, 1970-1974, 1991-1992.

Director, NSF-CAUSE Program to develop program in Environmental Science, 1978-1981.

Director of Graduate Studies, Bucknell University, 1962-1964.

Director, Knight Fellowship Program, 1991-1996

Other Professional Activities

Fulbright commission, chair of psychology, 1985-1990.

Chairman, Policy and Planning, Animal Behavior Society, 1979-82.

President, Division 2, of the American Psychological Association (The Teaching of Psychology), 1976-77.

Member, Advisory Board to Department of Psychology, Princeton University, 1970-84.

Consultant on programs on aging, Fund for the Improvement of Postsecondary Education.

Consultant to “Alternative Employment Opportunities for the Elderly,” OEO.

Governor’s Committee on Mental Health and Mental Retardation.

Personal Information

Born: July 9, 1934 in Long Beach, California.  Only child of Erma Downing Candland (1905-1965) and Horace George Candland (1905-1976).

Married: June 18, 1959 to Mary Elizabeth Homrighausen of Princeton, New Jersey (1936-2021). 

Children: Kevin Keith (1960), Christopher Douglas (1963), Ian Stuart (1965-2017). 



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